Hvad er antioxidanter?

Antioxidanter er en række stoffer, der spiller en stor rolle ved sygdomme - både forebyggende og behandlingsmæssigt - fordi de kan neutralisere de frie radikaler, der kan skabe grobund for kræftsygdomme.

E-vitamin er vigtig for tidlig forebyggelse af hjerte-karsygdomme hos midaldrende kvinder. Atherosklerose, eller dannelsen af plaque og læsioner i hjerte-arterier eller halskar, kan være et tidligt tegn på udvikling af hjerte-karsygdom - muligvis årtier før man klinisk kan diagnosticere disse sygdomme.

Tilstrækkelig indtagelse af vitaminer - herunder antioxidanter - er kendt for at kunne beskytte mod plaque-dannelse, men mange undersøgelser af disse vitaminer er fokuseret på patienter som allerede har tydelige tegn på hjertesygdom, såsom hjerteinfarkt, angina eller slagtilfælde.

Sunde midaldrende kvinder uden tydelige tegn på hjerte-karsygdom - som ikke tog vitamin- eller antioxidanttilskud - har været i fokus i en nyere undersøgelse. Forfatterne konkluderede, at lav indtagelse af E-vitamin er en risikofaktor ved tidlig atherosklerose-dannelse.

Referencer:
1. J. Biol Chem., 1999; 267: 4658-4663
2. Arch Biochem Biophys., 1992; 297: 184- 187.


Antioxidanterne C- og E-vitamin hjælper astmabørn

Antioxidanter som C- og E-vitamin kan beskytte lungerne hos astmatiske børn, så de ikke bliver skadet af ozon-forurening i storbyluften. Det viser en nyere undersøgelse, der er præsenteret i det videnskabelige tidsskrift American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Forskerne bag undersøgelsen konkluderer, at astmatiske børn i områder med luftforurening bør have mere vitamin C og E for at beskytte lungerne.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002; 166: 703-70.


Dagligt vitamintilskud nedsætter risiko for død eller ny blodprop efter hjerteoperation med 32%

Efter en hjerteoperation vil mange flere patienter overleve eller undgå nye hjertetilfælde, hvis de tager vitaminpiller. Vitaminerne sænker blodets indhold af et skadelige stof, som ellers beskadiger blodkarrene og fremkalder åreforkalkning og blodpropper. Det viser en klinisk afprøvning, som er præsenteret i det ansete videnskabelige tidsskrift JAMA. Vitaminer fjerner stoffet homocystein fra blodet. Stadig mere forskning viser, at en stor del af befolkningen har for meget af dette stof i blodet, hvilket øger risikoen for åreforkalkning og blodpropper. Meget tyder på, at mange danskere får for lidt af disse tre vigtige vitaminer.
JAMA. 2002;288:973-979


A-vitamin og Betacaroten

Flere forsøg har vist, at kræfthyppighed og kræftdødelighed har relation til kroppens niveau af betacaroten. Jo højere niveau af betacaroten, indtaget gennem kosten i forsøgenes begyndelsesperiode, desto lavere hyppighed af kræft, medens disse forsøg stod på. Flere laboratorie- og dyreforsøg har siden påvist, at betacaroten kan hæmme tumorcellevækst og cancerudvikling. (1), (2), (3).

I 1986 offentliggjorde man et forsøg i The New England Journal of Medicine, som viste, at finske personer med høje niveauer af E-vitamin og/eller betacaroten i blodet, havde langt mindre risiko for at udvikle lungecancer. (4)

Et forsøg har vist, at rygere der indtog betacaroten havde mindre risiko for at få en hjerneblødning. (5)

I en undersøgelse, der foregik over en 12-årig periode, indgik 22.071 læger. Disse læger indtog 50 mg syntetisk betacaroten hver anden dag eller 325 mg aspirin alene og i kombination. Denne undersøgelse viste ikke forøgede kræftdødsfald efter indtagelse af betacaroten. Andelen af rygere i denne lægegruppe var mindre end hos befolkningen generelt. Andelen af eks-rygere var til gengæld 39%. (6)

I alle tre forsøg - ATBC, PHS og CARET - hvor rygehyppigheden var størst, stod den samlede kræftdødelighed og hyppighed i et modsat forhold til betacarotenniveauet målt i kroppen. Jo højere niveau af betacaroten, indtaget i forsøgenes begyndelsesperiode, desto lavere hyppighed af kræft.

Referencer:
1. Crit Rev. Toxicol., 1999; 29:515-542.
2. Am J Clin Nutr., 1995; 62: 1393S-1402S.
3. Mutagenesis, 1999; 14: 153-172.
4. NEJM 1986
5. ATBC Study: NEJM 330, Apr. 14, 1994, p 1029.
6. Physicians Health study (PHS), Am J Epidemiol., 1999; 149:270-279.

Læs mere på Vitaviva.

Resten af denne side består af en række referencer på engelsk om effekten af antioxidanter.




Scientific references on the beneficial effect of Antioxidants

 

 

Angina Pectoris

Anderson TW et al. A double-blind trial of vitamin E in angina pectoris. Am J Clin Nutr 27:1174-1178, 1974.

 

Sklodowska M, Wasowicz W, Gromnadzinska J, et al. Selenium and vitamin E concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes of angina pectoris patients. Trace Elem Med 8:113-117, 1991.


Arteriosclerosis

Kuzuya F. Vitamin B6 and arteriosclerosis. Nagoya J Med Sci 55:1-4:1-9, 1993.

 

 

Atherosclerosis

Boniton-Kopp C, Coudray C, Berr C, et al. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and Antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The Eva study.Am J Clin Nutr 65:121-127, 1997.

Carpenter KLH, Cheeseman KH, Van Der Veen C, et al. Depletion of alpha-tocopherol in human atherosclerotic lesions. Free Rad Res 23:549- 558, 1995.

 

Calzada C, Bruckdorfer K, Rice-Evans C. The influence of Antioxidant nutrients on platelet function in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 128;1:97-105, 1997.

 

Ginter E et al. Vitamin C in the control of hypercholesterolemia in man. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 23:137-52, 1982; Turley S et al. Role of ascorbic acid in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 24:1-18, 1976.

 

Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, et al. Serial coronary angiographic evidence that Antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. JAMA 273;23:1849-1854, 1995.

 

Levene CI, Murray JC. The aetiological role of maternal B6 deficiency in the development of atherosclerosis. Lancet i:628, 1977.

 

McCully KS, Wilson RB. Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 22:2:215-227, 1975.
 
Mezzetti A, Lapenna D, Pierdomenico SD, et al. Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and nonsmokers.
Atherosclerosis 112:91-99,1995.

 

Moore JA et al. Selenium concentrations in plasma of patients with arteriographically defined coronary atherosclerosis. Clin Chem 30:1171, 1984.

 

Olszewski AJ et al. Reduction of plasma lipid and homocysteine levels by pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin, choline, riboflavin, and troxerutin in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 75:1:1-6, 1989.

 

Singh R, Niaz M, Bishnol J, et al. Diet, antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress, and risk of coronary artery disease. Acta Cardiol 49(5):453-67, 1994.

 

Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, et al. Dietary intake, plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects. Am J Cardiol 76:1233-8, 1995.

 

Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S, et al. Dietary intake and plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins in health and disease: a hospital-based case-control study. J Nutr Environ Med 5:235-242, 1995.

 

Verlangieri AJ, Bush MJ. Effects of d-a-tocopherol supplementation on experimentally induced primate atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Nutr 11;2:131-138, 1992.

Vermaak WJH et al. Vitamin B6 and coronary heart disease. Epidemiological observations and case studies. Atherosclerosis 63:235, 1987.

Vijaya I et al. Trace metal analysis in the aorta with and without atherosclerotic lesions. Trace Elem Electrolytes 12;4:200-202, 1995.

Vijayammal PL, Kurup PA. Pyridoxine and atherosclerosis: Role of pyridoxine in the metabolism of lipids and glycosaminoglycans in rats fed normal and high fat, high cholesterol diets containing 16% casein. Austral J Biol Sci 31:1:7-20, 1978.

 

Willis GC, Fishman S. Ascorbic acid content of human arterial tissue. Can Med Assoc J 72:500-3, 1955.

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Cancer 

Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of a-tocopherol and b-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 62; suppl: 1427S-30S, 1995.

 

Ambrosone C, Marshal lJ, Vena J, et al. Interaction of family history of breast cancer and dietary Antioxidants with breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes 6; 5:407-415, 1995.

 

Bain C, Green A, Sisking V, et al. Diet and melanoma: an exploratory casecontrol study. Ann Epidemiol 3:235-8, 1993.

 

Barone J, Taioli E, Hebert J, et al. Vitamin supplement use and risk for oral and esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer 18:31-41, 1992.

 

Benner SE, Winn RJ, Lippman SM, et al. Regression of oral leukoplakia with alpha-tocopherol: a community clinical oncology program chemoprevention study. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:44-7, 1993.

 

Benner SE, Wargovich MJ, Lippman SM, et al. Reduction in oral mucosa micronuclei frequency following alpha-tocopherol treatment of oral leukoplakia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 3:73-6, 1994.

 

Bond GG et al. Dietary vitamin A and lung cancer: Results of a case-control study among chemical workers. Nutr Cancer 9:109-1021, 1987.

 

Bostick RM, Potter JD, McKenzie DR, et al. Reduced risk of colon cancer with high intake of vitamin E: The Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Res 53:4230-4237,1993.

 

Bruce WR, Dion PW. Studies relating to a fecal mutagen. Am J Clin Nutr 33:2511- 12, 1980.

 

Bruemmer B et al. Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol 144(5):485-495, 1996.

 

Buiatti E et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy: association with nutrients. Int J Cancer 45:899-901, 1990.

 

Bukin YV, Draudin-Krylenko VA, Orlow EN, et al. Effect of prolonged b-carotene or DL-a-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on ornithine decarboxylase activity in human atrophic stomach mucosa. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prevent 4:865-70,1995.

 

Bussey HJ et al. A randomized trial of ascorbic acid in polyposis coli. Cancer 50(7):1434-1439, 1982.

 

Cahill RJ, O’Sullivan KR, Mathias PM, et al. Effects of vitamin Antioxidant supplementation on cell kinetics of patients with adenomatous polyps. Gut 34(7):963-967, 1993.

 

Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:4538-4542, 1978; Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73(10):3685-3689, 1976.

 

Chajes V, Lhuillery C, Sattler W, et al. Alpha-tocopherol and hydroperoxide content in breast adipose tissue from patients with breast tumors. Int J Cancer 67:170-175, 1996.

 

Chen J, Geissler C, Parpia B, et al. Antioxidant status and cancer mortality in China. Int J Epidemiol 21:625-635, 1992.

 

Clark LC, Cantor KP, Allaway WH. Selenium in forage crops and cancer mortality in U.S. counties. Arch Environ Health 46:37-42, 1991.

 

Cohen M, Bhagavan HN. Ascorbic acid and gastrointestinal cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 14(6):565-78, 1995.

 

Comstock GW et al. Prediagnostic serum levels of carotenoids and vitamin E as related to subsequent cancer in Washington County, Maryland. Am J Clin Nutr 53:260S-4S, 1991.

 

Cornee J, Pobel D, Riboli E, et al. A Case-control study of gastric cancer and nutritional factors in Marseille, France. Eur J Epidemiol 11: 55-65, 1995.

 

Dasgupta J, Sanyal U, Das S. Vitamin E - its status and role in leukemia and lymphoma. Neoplasma 40:235-40, 1993.

 

Daviglus ML et al. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the Western Electric study. Epidemiology 7(5):472-7, 1996.

 

De Vries N, Snow GB. Relationships of vitamins A and E and beta-carotene serum levels to head and neck cancer patients with and without second primary tumours. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 247:368-70, 1990.

 

Dyke GW, Craven JL, Hall R, Garner RC. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on gastric mucosal damage. Carcinogenesis 15(2):291-5, 1994.

 

Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF, et al. Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basal study. Int J Cancer 66:145-50, 1996.

 

Esteve J, Riboli E, Pequingnot G, Terracine B et al. Diet and cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx: the IARC multi-center study in southwestern Europe. Cancer Causes Control 7:240-52, 1996.

 

Ferraroni M, La Vecchi C, Davanzo B, et al. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 70(6):1150-5, 1994.

 

Fiore Paolo et al. Retinol (vitamin A) and retinol-binding protein serum levels in children with cancer at onset. Nutrition 13(1):17-20, 1997.

 

Fontham ETH et al. Dietary vitamins A and C and lung cancer risk in Louisiana. Cancer 62:2267-73, 1988. 

 

Gey KF et al. Plasma levels of Antioxidant vitamins in relation to ischemic heart disease and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 45(5 Suppl):1368-77, 1987.

 

Gridley G, McLaughlin JK, Block G, et al. Vitamin supplement use and reduced risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Am J Epidemiol 135; 10:1083-92, 1992.

 

Gupta S. Effect of radiotherapy on plasma ascorbic acid concentration in cancer patients. Unpublished thesis - summarized in Hanck AB. Vitamin C and Cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 259:307-320, 1988.

 

Ha C et al. The effect of B-6 on host susceptibility to Moloney Sarcoma Virus-induced tumor growth in mice. J Nutr 114:938-45, 1984.

 

Hasson L-E, Nyren O, Bergostrom R, et al. Nutrients and gastric cancer risk: a population-based case-controlled study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 57:638-44, 1994.

 

Hsing A et al. Serologic precursors of cancer: Retinol, carotenoids, tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:941-6, 1990.

 

Johnson JE, Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E. Relationship of vitamin A and oral leukoplakia. Arch Dermatol 88;5:607-12, 1963.

 

Kirkpatrick CS, White E, Lee JAH. Case-control study of malignant melanoma in Washington State. II. Diet, alcohol, and obesity. Am J Epidemiol 139:869-80, 1994.

 

Knekt P. Serum alpha tocopherol and the risk of cancer. Helsinki, Publications of the Social Insurance Inst., Finland, ML, Vol 83, 1983.

 

Knekt P et al. Serum vitamin E and risk of cancer among Finnish men during a 10-year follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 127; 1:28-41, 1988.

 

Knekt P et al. Serum vitamin A and subsequent risk of cancer: Cancer incidence follow-up of the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 132:857-70, 1990.

 

Knekt P et al. Vitamin E and cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 53:283S-6S, 1991.

 

Ko W-F, Helzlsouer JK, Morris, et al. The association between Antioxidant micronutrients and anatomic site-specific incidence of colon cancer. Abstract. J Am Coll Nutr 12:586, 1993.

 

Kolonel LN et al. Association of diet and place of birth with stomach cancer incidence in Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians. Am J Clin Nutr 34(11):2478-2485, 1981.

 

Kune GA et al. Serum levels of b-carotene, vitamin A and zinc in male lung cancer cases and controls. Nutr Cancer 12:169-176, 1989.

 

Kune G, Kune S, Field B, et al. Oral and pharyngeal cancer, diet, smoking, alcohol, and serum vitamin A, and beta-carotene levels: A case-control study in men. Nutr Cancer 20:61-70, 1993.

 

LeGardeur BY et al. A case-control study of serum vitamins A, E, and C in lung cancer patients. Nutr Cancer 14:133-40, 1990.

 

Lipman T et al. Esophageal zinc content in human squamous esophageal cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 6:41-6, 1987.

 

Lippman SM, Meyskens ML Jr. Vitamin A derivatives in the prevention and treatment of human cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 7; 4:269-84, 1988.

 

London RS et al. Breast cancer prevention by supplemental vitamin E. J Am Coll Nutr 4(5):559-64, 1985.

 

Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 64:190-6, 1996.

 

Mayne ST, Janerich DT, Greenwald P, et al. Dietary beta-carotene and lung cancer risk in U.S. nonsmokers. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:33-8, 1994.

 

McKeown-Eyssen G et al. A randomized trial of vitamins C and E in the prevention of recurrence of colorectal polyps. Cancer Res 48(16):4701-5, 1988.

 

Menkes MS et al. Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E, selenium and the risk of lung cancer. N Engl J Med 315:1250, 1986.

 

Menkes MS et al. Serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E and the risk of lung cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 6:425, 1987.

 

Michalek AM et al. Vitamin A and tumor recurrence in bladder cancer. Cancer 9:143-146, 1987.

 

Monoharan S, Nagini S. Lipid peroxidation and Antioxidant status in oral cancer patients. Med Sci Res 22:291-292,1994.

 

Nomura A et al. Dietary factors in cancer of the lower urinary tract. Int J Cancer 48:199-205, 1991.

 

Noto V et al. Effects of sodium ascorbate vitamin C and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone vitamin K3 treatment on human tumor cell growth in vitro. I. Synergism of combined vitamin C and K3 action. Cancer 63:901-906, 1989.

 

Ocke M, Kromhout D, Menotti A, et al. Average intake of Antioxidant (pro) vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 16 cohorts of the seven countries study. Int J Cancer 61(4):480-484, 1995.

 

Ocke M, Bueno-deo-Mesquita H, Feskens E et al. Repeated measurements of vegetables, fruits, b-carotene, and vitamins C and E in relation to lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol 145; 4:358-65, 1997.

 

O’Connor HJ et al. Effect of increased intake of vitamin C on the mutagenic activity of gastric juice and intragastric concentrations of ascorbic acid. Carcinogenesis 6(11):1675-6, 1985.

 

Orr JW Jr et al. Nutritional status of patients with untreated cervical cancer. II. Vitamin assessment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151(5):632-5, 1985.

 

Palan PR et al. Plasma levels of antioxidant beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in uterine cervix dysplasias and cancer. Nutr Cancer 15:13-20, 1991.

 

Palan P, Mikhail M, Goldberg G, et al. Plasmalevels of beta-carotene, lycopene canthanxanthin, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol and tau-tocopherol in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. Clin Cancer 2;1:181-185, 1996.

 

Pan WH, Wang CY, Huang SM, et al. Vitamin A, vitamin E or beta-carotene status and hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Epidemiol 3:217-24, 1993.

 

Pascoe GA, Reed DJ. Vitamin E protection against chemical-induced cell injury. II. Evidence for a threshold effect of cellular a-tocopherol in prevention of adriamycin toxicity. Arch Biochem Biophys 256:159-166, 1987.

 

Pasquali D et al. Abnormal level of retinoic acid in prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81(6):2186-2191, 1996.

 

Pastorino U, Infante M, Maioli M, et al. Adjuvant treatment of stage I lung cancer with high-dose vitamin A. J Clin Oncol 11:1216-22, 1993.

 

Pauling L et al. Effect of ascorbic acid on the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in RIII mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:5185-9, 1985.

 

Prasad KN, Kumar A, Kochupillai V, and Cole WC. High doses of Multiple Antioxidant Vitamins: Essential ingredients in improving the efficacy of standard Cancer Therapy. J Am Coll Nutr 18:13-25, 1999.

Prasad KN, Cole WC, and Prasad JE. Multiple Antioxidant Vitamins as an Adjunct to Standard and Experimental Cancer Therapies. Z.Onkol / J Oncol 31:1201-1078, 1999.

Ramaswamy P, Natarajan R. Vitamin B6 status in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. Nutr Cancer 6:176-80, 1984.

 

Reichman M et al. Serum vitamin A and subsequent development of prostate cancer in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cancer Res 50:2311-15, 1990.

 

Rock CL, Saxe GA, Ruffin MT, et al. Carotenoids, vitamin A and estrogen receptor status in breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 25:281-96, 1996.

 

Romney SL et al. Plasma vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:976-80, 1985.

 

Schlegel JU et al. The role of ascorbic acid in the prevention of bladder tumor formation. J Urol 103(2):155-159, 1970.

 

Schrauzer GN et al. Cancer mortality correlation studies - III: Statistical associations with dietary selenium intakes. Bioinorg Chem 7:23, 1977.

 

Shibata A, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. Br J Cancer 66(4):673-679, 1992.

Shklar G et al. Regression of experimental cancer by oral administration of combined alpha-tocopherol and betacarotene. Nutr Cancer 12:321-5, 1989.

 

Shklar G et al. Prevention of experimental cancer and immunostimulation by vitamin E (immunosurveillance). J Oral Pathol Med 19:60-4, 1990.

 

Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S, et al. Dietary intake and plasma levels of Antioxidant Vitamins in health and disease: a hospital-based case-control study. J Nutr Environ Med 5:235-242, 1995.
  

Spigelman AD, Uff CR, Phillips RK. Vitamin C levels in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Br J Surg 77; 5:508-9, 1990.

 

Stähelin HB et al. Cancer, vitamins, and plasma lipids: Prospective Basel study. J Natl Cancer Inst 73; 6:1463-8, 1984.

 

Stich HF, Hornby AP, Matthew B, et al. Response of oral leukoplakias to the administration of vitamin A. Cancer Lett

40:93-101, 1988.

 

Stich H et al. Remission of oral precancerous lesions of tobacco/areca nut chewers following administration of beta-carotene or vitamin A, and maintenance of the protective effect. Cancer Det 15:93-8, 1991.

 

Stich HF, Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Krishnan Nair M. Remission of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers and maintenance of the protective effect of b-carotene or vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 53:298S-304S, 1991.

 

Stryker W et al. Diet, plasma levels of beta carotene and alpha tocopherol, and risk of malignant melanoma. Am J

Epidemiol 13:597-611, 1990.

 

Suzuki F et al. Ability of sera from mice treated with Ge-132, an organic germanium compound, to inhibit experimental murine ascites tumours. Br J Cancer, 52(5):757-63, 1985.

 

Van den Brandt P, Goldbohm A, van’t Veer P, et al. A prospective cohort study on selenium status and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Res 53:4860-5, 1993.

 

Van T, Veer P et al. Dietary fiber, beta-carotene and breast cancer: Results from a case-control study. Int J Cancer 4:825-828, 1990.

 

Verreault R et al. A casecontrol study of diet and invasive cervical cancer. Int J Cancer 43:1050-1054, 1989.

 

Vlajinac HD et al. Diet and prostate cancer: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer 33(1):101-7, 1997.

 

Wadleigh RG, Redman RS, Graham ML, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Am J Med

92; 5:481-484, 1992.

 

Wagner DA et al. Effect of vitamins C and E on endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamino acids in humans: precursor-product studies with [15N] nitrate. Cancer Res 45:6519-22, 1985.

 

Wald NJ et al. Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer. Br JCancer 49:321-4, 1984.

 

Weisberger JH. Nutritional approach to cancer prevention with emphasis on vitamins, Antioxidants, and carotenoids. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 53: 226s.

 

Zheng W, Sellers TA, Doyle TJ, et al. Retinol, Antioxidant vitamins, and cancer of the upper digestive tract in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 142:955-960, 1995.

 

Zhenrong Z, Parvianen M, Mannisto S et al. Vitamin E concentration in breast adipose tissue of breast cancer patients. Cancer Causes Control 7:591-595, 1996.

 

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Cerebrovascular Disease

Boers GHJ et al. Heterozygosity for homocystinuria in premature peripheral and cerebral occlusive arterial disease. N Engl J Med 313:709-715, 1985.

 

Cao X, Phillis JW. The free radical scavenger, alpha-lipoic acid, protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils. Free Rad Res 23(4):365-370, 1995.

 

Daviglus M, Orencia A, Dyer A et al. Dietary vitamin C, B-carotene and 30-year risk of stroke: Results from the Western Electric Study. Neuroepidemiology 16(2):69-77, 1997.

 

De Keyser J, De Klippel N, Merkx H et al. Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E and early outcome after ischaemic stroke. Lancet 339:1562-1565, 1992.

 

Gale CR, Martyn CN, Winter PD, Cooper C. Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. BMJ 310:1563-6, 1995.

 

Gey KF, Stahelin HB, Eichholzer M. Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Invest 71:3-6, 1993.

 

Japanese Cerebrovascular Prevention Study reported in: Secondary prevention tried in pts. with cerebrovascular accident. Medical Tribune Meeting Focus Suppl, May 22, 1997:4.

 

Manson J, Stampfer M, Willett W, et al. Antioxidant vitamin consumption and incidence of stroke in women. Abstract. Circulation 87:678, 1993.

 

Panigrahi M et al. a-Lipoic acid protects against reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain Res 717:184-8, 1996.

 

Rath M, Pauling L. Solution to the puzzle of human cardiovascular disease: its primary cause is ascorbate deficiency leading to the deposition of lipoprotein (a) and fibrinogen/fibrin in the vascular wall. J Orthomol Med 6(3-4):125-134, 1991.

 

Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, et al. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 332(5):286-91, 1995.

 

Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S, et al. Dietary intake and plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins in health and disease: a hospital-based casecontrol study. J Nutr Environ Med 5:235-242, 1995.

 

Steiner M., Div. Of Hematology/Oncology, Memorial Hospital, Pawtucket, RI. Vitamin E enhances the benefits of aspirin in preventing or reducing the incidence of strokes. Abstract. Second Int. Conf. on Antioxidant Vitamins and Beta-carotene in Disease Prevention. Berlin, Germany, October 10-12, 1994.

 

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Ischemic Heart Disease

Gey KF et al. Plasma levels of Antioxidant vitamins in relation to ischemic heart disease and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 45(5 Suppl):1368-77, 1987.

 

Gey KF et al. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 53:326S-34S, 1991.

Gey KF, Stahelin HB, Eichholzer M. Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Invest 71:3-6, 1993.

 

Horsey J, Livesley B, Dickerson JW. Ischemic heart disease and aged patients: effects of ascorbic acid on lipoproteins. J Hum Nutr 35:1:53-58, 1981.

 

Steiner M, Glantz M, Lekos A. Vitamin E plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone in patients with transient ischemic attacks. Am J Clin Nutr 62;suppl:1381S-4S, 1995.

 

Suadicani P, Hein H, Gyntelberg F. Serum selenium concentration and risk of ischaemic heart disease in a prospective cohort study of 3000 males. Atherosclerosis 96:33-42, 1992.

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Cholesterol

Azen SP, Qian D, Mack W, et al. Effect of supplementary Antioxidant vitamin intake on carotid arterial wall intima-media thickness in a controlled clinical trial of cholesterol lowering. Circulation 94;10:2369-2372, 1996.

Bierenbaum M, Reichstein R, Bhagavan H, et al. Relationship between serum lipid peroxidation products in hypercholesterolemic subjects and vitamin E status. Biochem Int 28:57-66, 1992.

Brattström L, Stavenow L, Galvard H, et al. Pyridoxine reduces cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein and increases antithrombin III activity in 80- year-old men with low plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 50:8:873-877, 1990.

Cloarec MJ et al. Alpha-tocopherol: Effect on plasma lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients. Isr J Med Sci 23;8:869-872, 1987.

Dallal GE et al. Ascorbic acid, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I in an elderly Chinese population in Boston. J Am Coll Nutr 8;1:69-74, 1989.

 

Dobson HM et al. The effect of ascorbic acid on the seasonal variations in serum cholesterol levels. Scot Med J 293:176-182, 1984.

 

Gartside PS, Glueck CJ. Relationship of dietary intake to hospital admission for coronary heart and vascular disease: The NHANES II National Probability Study. J Am Coll Nutr 12(6):5676-84, 1993.

 

Hallfrisch J et al. High plasma vitamin C associated with increased plasma HDL- and HDL 2 - cholesterol. Clin Res 39:A203, 1991.

Hallfrisch J, Singh VN, et al. High plasma vitamin C associated with high plasma HDL-and HDL2 cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 60:100-105, 1994.

 

Jacques PF et al. Ascorbic acid, HDL, and total plasma cholesterol in the elderly. J Am Coll Nutr 6;2:169-174, 1987.

Jacques PF. Effects of vitamin C on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure. J Am Coll Nutr 11;2:139-144, 1992.

 

Jacques PF, Sulsky SI, Perrone GA, Schaefer EJ. Ascorbic acid and plasma lipids. Epidemiology 5:19-24, 1994.
 
Jacques PF, Sulsky SI, Perrone GE, et al. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Ann Epidemiol 51:52-59, 1995.


Jialal L, Fuller CJ, Hunt BA. The effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15:190-198,1995.

 

Lam SC et al. Investigation of possible mechanisms of pyridoxal-5-phosphate inhibition of platelet reactions. Thrombosis Res 20:633-645, 1980.
 
Lefavi R et al.
Lipid-lowering effect of a dietary chromium III-nicotinic acid complex in male athletes. Nutr Res 13:239-249, 1993.


Ness A, Khaw K, Bingham S, Day NE. Vitamin C status and serum lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 50(11):724-9, 1996.

 

Princen H, van Poppel G, Vogelezang C, et al. Supplementation with vitamin E but not beta carotene in vivo protects low density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation in vitro: Effect of cigarette smoking. Arterioscler Throm 12:554-562, 1992.

Princen HM, van Duyvenvoorde W, Buytenhek R, et al.
Supplementation with low doses of vitamin E protects LDL from lipid peroxidation in men and women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15:325-333, 1995.

 

Salonen JT et al. Interactions of serum copper, selenium, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherogenesis. Br Med J 302:756-760, 1991.

 

Shah DR et al. Effect of oral zinc sulphate on serum lipids and lipoproteins in human subjects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 32;1:47-50, 1988.

Simon E et al. Plasma and erythrocyte vitamin E content in asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic subjects. Clin Chem 43:2:285-289, 1997.

Simons LA, Von Konigsmark M, Balasubramaniam S. What dose of vitamin E is required to reduce susceptibility of LDL to oxidation? Aust N Z J Med 26;4:496-503, 1996.

 

Suzukawa M, Ishikawa T, Yoshida H, Tokorozawa N. Effect of in-vivo supplementation with low-dose vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. J Am Coll Nutr 14:1:46-52, 1995.

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Myocardial Infarction

Chakrabarty S, Nandi A, Mukhopadhyay C, et al. Protective role of ascorbic acid against lipid peroxidation and myocardial injury. Mol Cell Biochem 111:41-47, 1992.
 

Chamiec T et al. Effects of Antioxidant vitamins C and E on signal-averaged electro-cardiogram and acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 77:237-241, 1996.

 

Herbaczynska-Cedro K, Klosiewicz-Wasek B, Cedro K, et al. Supplementation with vitamins C and E suppresses leukocyte oxygen free radical production in patients with myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 16:1044-1049, 1995.

 

Kok FJ et al. Low vitamin B6 status in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 63:513-516, 1989.

Kok FJ et al. Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 261;8:1161-1164, 1989.

 

Korpela H et al. Effect of selenium supplementation after acute myocardial infarction. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 65:249-52,1989.

 

Nyyssonen K et al. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from Eastern Finland. BMJ 314:634-638, 1997.

 

Oster O et al. The serum selenium concentration of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Ann Clin Res 18;1: 36-42, 1986.

 

Salonen JT et al. Association between cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction and serum selenium in a matched-pair longitudinal study. Lancet ii:175-179, 1982.

 

Street DA et al. Serum Antioxidants and myocardial infarction: Are low levels of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation 90;3:1154-1161, 1994.

 

Vallance BD, Hume R, Weyers E. Reassessment of changes in leucocyte and serum ascorbic acid after acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J 40;1:64-68, 1978.

 

Verhoef P, Stampfer MJ, Buring JE, et al. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: relation with vitamin B6, B12, and folate. Am J Epidemiol 143:9:845-859, 1996.

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Cardiovascular and Coronary Diseases

Bellizzi MC, Franklin MF, Duthie GG, et al. Vitamin E and coronary heart disease: the European paradox. Eur J Clin Nutr 48:822-831, 1994.
 
Boers GH. Hyperhomocysteinaemia: a newly recognized risk factor for vascular disease. Neth J Med 45:1:34-41, 1994.

Bordia A et al. Effect of vitamin C on platelet adhesiveness and platelet aggregation in coronary artery disease patients. Clin Cardiol 810:552-554, 1985.

Brattström L et al. Impaired homocysteine metabolism in early-onset cerebral and peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Effects of pyridoxine and folic acid treatment. Atherosclerosis 81:1:51-60, 1990.

Coghlan JG, Flitter WD, Clutton SM, et al. Lipid peroxidation and changes in vitamin E levels during coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106;2:268-274, 1993.

Dalery K et al. Homocysteine and coronary artery disease in French Canadian subjects: relation with vitamins B12, B6, pyridoxal phosphate and folate. Am J Cardiol 75:1107-1111, 1995.

 

DeMaio SJ et al. Vitamin E supplementation, plasma lipids and incidence of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTCA. J Am Coll Nutr 11;1:68-73, 1992.

 

Esk C et al. Correlation of plasma ascorbic acid with cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr 51:511, 1990.

Esk C et al. Correlation of plasma ascorbic acid with cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Res 38:A747, 1990.

 

Ferreira R et al. Antioxidant action of vitamins A and E in patients submitted to coronary bypass surgery. Vasc Surg 25:191-195, 1991.

Gartside PS, Glueck CJ. Relationship of dietary intake to hospital admission for coronary heart and vascular disease: The NHANES II National Probability Study. J Am Coll Nutr 12:6:5676-5684, 1993.

 

Khaw K-T, Woodhouse P. Interrelation of vitamin C, infection, hemostatic factors and cardiovascular disease. BMJ 310:1559-1563, 1995.

 

Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am JEpidemiol 139:1180-1189, 1994.

 

Kushi KH, olsom AR, Prineas RJ, et al. Dietary Antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 334:1156-1162,1996.

 

Levine GN, Frei B, Koulouris SN, et al. Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 93:6:1107-1113, 1996.

Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly.
Am J Clin Nutr 64:190-196,1996.

 

Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of Antioxidant vitamins and incidence of coronary heart disease in women. Abstract. J Am Coll Nutr 11:5:633, 1992.

Ohvall M et al. Gamma, but not alpha tocopherol levels in serum are reduced in coronary heart disease patients. J Int Med 239:111-117, 1996.

 

Ramirez J, Flowers NC. Leukocyte ascorbic acid and its relationship to coronary artery disease in man. Am J Clin Nutr 3:10:2079-2087, 1980.

Rath M, Pauling L. Solution to the puzzle of human cardiovascular disease: its primary cause is ascorbate deficiency leading to the deposition of lipoprotein a and fibrinogen/fibrin in the vascular wall. J Orthomol Med 6:3-4:125-134, 1991.

Rath M, Pauling L. A unified theory of human cardiovascular disease leading the way to the abolition of this disease as a cause for human mortality. J Orthomol Med 7:1:5-15, 1992.

Regnström J, Nilsson J, Moldeus P, et al.
Inverse relation between the concentration of low-density- lipoprotein vitamin E and severity of coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 63:377-385, 1996.

 

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 32820:1450-1456, 1993.

 

Sahyoun NR et al. Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 144(5):501-11, 1996.

  

Serfontein WJ, Ubbink JB, De Villiers LS, et al. Plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate level as risk index for coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 55:3:357-361, 1985.

 

Singh R, Niaz M, Bishnol J, et al. Diet, Antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress, and risk of coronary artery disease. Acta Cardiol 49:5:453-467, 1994.

Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, et al. Dietary intake, plasma levels of Antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects. Am J Cardiol 76:1233-8, 1995.

 

Stampfer M, Hennekens C, Manson J, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 328:1444-1449, 1993.

 

Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study CHAOS. Lancet 347:781-786, 1996.

 

Toohey L, Harris MA, Allen KGD, Melby CL. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations are related to cardiovascular risk factors in African- Americans. J Nutr 126:121-8, 1996.

 

Torun M et al. Serum levels of vitamin E in relation to cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Pharm Therap 20:335-340, 1995.

 

Virtamo J et al. Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Am J Epidemiol 122:276-282, 1985.

 

Woodside J et al. The effects of vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular risk. J Inherit Metabol Dis 19:Suppl 1:26/P51, 1996.

 

Yau TM, Weisel RD, Mickle DA, et al. Vitamin E for coronary bypass operations. A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108;2:302-310, 1994.

 

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Various Diseases


Brattström L. Vitamins as homocysteine-lowering agents: a mini review. Presentation at the American Institute of Nutrition Colloquium, April 13, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia; Brattström L. Vitamins as homocysteine-lowering agents. J Nutr 126:4 Suppl:1276S-1280S, 1996.

Cavarocchi NC et al. Superoxide generation during cardiopulmonary bypass: Is there a role for vitamin E? J Surg Res 40:519-527, 1986.

 

Creter D et al. Effect of vitamin E on platelet aggregation in diabetic retinopathy. Acta Hematol 62:74, 1979.
 
De Lorgeril , Boissonnat P, Salen P, et al.
The beneficial effect of dietary Antioxidant supplementation on platelet aggregation and cyclosporine treatment in heart transplant recipients. Transplantation 58:193-194, 1994.

Dieber-Rotheneder M et al.
Effect of oral supplementation with D-alpha-tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation. J Lipid Res 32:1325- 32, 1991.

Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA.
Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 3:3:194-202, 1992.

Eriksson J, Kohvakka A. Magnesium and ascorbic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus.
Ann Nutr Metab 394:217-223, 1995.

Gatto LM, Hallen GK, Brown AJ, Samman S. Ascorbic acid induces a favorable lipoprotein profile in women. J Am Coll Nutr 152:154-158, 1996.
 
Hennig B et al. Protective effects of vitamin E in age-related endothelial cell injury.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 59:273-279, 1989.
 
Hermann WJ et al. The effect of tocopherol on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A clinical observation. Am J Clin Pathol 72:848-852, 1979.

 

Jandak J et al. Reduction of platelet adhesiveness by vitamin E supplementation in humans. Thrombosis Res 49:393-404, 1988.

 

Jialal I, et al. Physiologic levels of ascorbate inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 82:185-191,1990.

 

Jialal I, Grundy SM. Effect of dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. J Lipid Res 33;6:899-906, 1992.
 
Kritchevsky SB, Shimakawa T, Tell GS, et al.
Dietary Antioxidants and carotid artery wall thickness: the ARIC study. Circulation 92:8:2142-2150, 1995.

Kunisaki M, Umeda P, Inoguchi T, et al.
Vitamin E binds to specific binding sites and enhances prostacyclin production by cultured aortic endothelial cells. Thromb Haemost 68:744-751,1992.

 

Miwa K, Miyagi Y, Igawa A, et al. Vitamin E deficiency in variant angina. Circulation 94;1:14-18, 1996.
  
Ness A, Khaw K, Bingham S, Day NE.
Vitamin C status and serum lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 50; 11:724-729, 1996.

 

Novelli GP et al. Vitamin E protects human skeletal muscle from damage during surgical ischemia-reperfusion. Am J Surg March 173:206-209, 1997.
 
Porkkala-Sarataho E, Nyyssonen K , Salonen JT. Increased oxidation resistance of atherogenic plasma lipoproteins at high vitamin E levels in non-vitamin e supplemented men. Atherosclerosis 124;1:83-94, 1996.

Singal PK, Dhillon KS, Beamish RE, Dhalla NS. Protective action of zinc against catecholamine-induced myocardial changes. Electrocardiographic and ultrastructural studies. Lab Invest 44:426, 1981.

Singal PK, Kapur N, Dhillon KS et al.
Role of free radicals in catecholamine induced cardiomyopathy. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 60:1390, 1982.

Steiner M. Influence of vitamin E on platelet function in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 10;5:466-473, 1991.

Subbarao K et al. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate - a new physiological inhibitor of blood coagulation and platelet function.
Biochem Pharmacol 28:531-544, 1979.

Takamatsu S, Takamatsu M, Satoh K, et al.
Effects on health of dietary supplementation with 100 mg d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, daily for 6 years. J Int Med Res 23:342-357, 1995.

Tomoda H, Yoshitake M, Morimoto K, Aoki N, et al.
Possible prevention of postangioplasty restenosis by ascorbic acid. Am J Cardiology 78;11:1284-1286, 1996.

Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJH, van der Merwe A, Becker PJ. Vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate nutritional status in men with hyperhomocysteinemia.
Am J Clin Nutr 57:47-53, 1993.




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